Disequilibrium Analysis of Price Formation – Part 2

Courtesy of Professor Fekete @ NASOE:


We are now ready to discuss the co-ordination problem of economics and to see how entrepreneurs approach it through arbitrage. It will appear that our introduction of arbitrage as the generic form of human action, that underlies all the multifarious activities of entrepreneurs in pursuit of pure entrepreneurial profits, is insightful. It focuses on what is important while deemphasizing what is less important or unimportant in the activities of entrepreneurs when looked at from the point of view of the market process. It also leads to the classification of entrepreneurial strategies as we treat the coordination problem.

The coordination problem and the landscape of spreads

Lack of coordination or the presence of disorder in society represents an opportunity for gain, even though every instance of this remains hidden to most observers until it is exposed by entrepreneurship. Once the opportunity is being exploited, coordination overtakes disorder and the profit potential disappears. There prevails in society a spontaneous tendency for greater co- ordination driven by entrepreneurship. In fact, it is the existence of this process that makes it possible to have theoretical economics as opposed to economic history. But how does the entrepreneur diagnose the presence of disorder? He surveys the landscape of spreads. The latter furnishes an accurate picture of the state of coordination or the lack of it. In more details, narrow spreads indicate a higher and wide spreads indicate a lower state of coordination.

The entrepreneur picks a spread that appears unreasonably wide to him. He then exerts his coordinating influence on the spread through arbitrage using the corresponding straddle. The landscape of spreads is not to be visualized as rigid relief map but rather as a fine cobweb, every node of which is inter- connected with every other. Disturbance at one node will affect the state of every other node. Accordingly, the entrepreneur attacking one spread through arbitrage will transmit information to and will influence the width of every other spread. In order to understand the coordination process more fully we must look at various entrepreneurial strategies. We isolate two of them: the defensive or retrospective (backward-looking) strategies utilizing horizontal arbitrage, and the aggressive or prospective (forward-looking) strategies utilizing vertical arbitrage. As we have seen, producers of nth order goods act as arbitrageurs on three counts: (1) they are doing vertical arbitrage between the nth and (n + l)st order goods; (2) they are doing horizontal arbitrage at the level of output (goods of order n); and (3) at the level of input (goods of order n+1). Different types of arbitrage have different roles to play in the market process. First we look at the role of horizontal arbitrage. Continue reading

The Silver Saga

Courtesy of Professor Fekete @ Silverseek.com:

What says the silver with her virgin hue?
“Who chooseth me shall get as much as he deserves.”

(Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice)


Antal E. Fekete

An Address Delivered at the Conference Held at the University of Padova
on November 30, 2012
“Coin Finds and Historical-Economic Processes in the Ancient World:
Ten Years of Research 2002-2012”

The silver standard did not die a natural death. It was deliberately killed. A proper search for the assassins was never carried out. There was never a post-mortem. In this paper we focus on the conspiracy as it might have unfolded between the two dates: April 9, 1865 (the day General Lee of the Confederacy surrendered at Appomattox to General Grant of the Union marking the end of the War Between the States) and January 1, 1879 (Resumption Day, when payment of the victorious Union’s currency, the greenback was resumed in gold specie ̶ but not in silver).

China has been on the silver standard since time immemorial. The Chinese did not use coins for monetary purposes such as bank reserves until the end of the 19th century; they used the sycee, a shoe-shaped ingot of approximate size 5 x 3 x 3 inches, weighing approximately 50 taels or about 5 pounds (avoirdupois). No one can pretend to know, however approximately, how much monetary silver has gone into hiding in China and in India, these two most populous countries also known as the world’s sink for silver, over the millennia. In comparison estimates of monetary gold having gone into hiding over the same period of time are far more reliable. Be that as it may, the amount of monetary silver unaccounted for is probably greater than any estimate ever made.

In the 19th century silver coins did most of the money-work in the world. The turnover of silver coinage (the value of silver coins times their velocity) was at an all-time high, eclipsing the turnover of gold coinage by far. Inept governments did not follow the lead of Isaac Newton, and they tried to enforce a rigid exchange rate between the two monetary metals (called the Mint ratio). This system was called bimetallism ̶ a stillborn idea.

Bimetallism did not stabilize the exchange rate. On the contrary, it has destabilized it. The natural monetary system is based on silver and gold valued at a variable rate, as Newton’s monetary system in Britain did. Bimetallism was the disease, the demise of the silver standard was the unfortunate consequence. In the Western countries by 1879, in India by 1893, in China, the last stronghold of silver, by 1935, silver was demonetized. Between the two dates 1879 and 1935 the world witnessed a most spectacular event: the collapse of the value of silver by more than 80% in a little over half of a century. Silver fell from $1.29/oz in 1873 to 25¢/oz in 1935. Putting it differently, the gold/silver price ratio rose from 15:1 to more than 80:1. Never in history, ancient or modern, have markets put such fancy values on gold in terms of silver.

Who killed the silver standard? Continue reading